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Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

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❶American Journal of Pathology.


Long Term Effects of Cardiovascular Exercise
1. Introduction
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Open in a separate window. Table 1 Selected clinical trials on the cardiovascular effects of exercise. Reference Patient groups and characteristics Intervention and followup Measured parameters Outcome [ ] 50 hypertensive patients divided in 2 groups and stratified for other variables a Routine antihypertensive therapy b Antihypertensive therapy plus 6 month exercise. Exercise training on a treadmill or bicycle ergometer three times a week for 6 months.

Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac structure and function. Mean EF was lower among sedentary versus active women. No other significant differences systolic or diastolic function were observed. Supervised, facility-based training program consisting of endurance and resistance training 32 sessions. Physical functioning score improved with ET group. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV. ST consisted of eight exercises, 3 sets of 10 repetitions, intensity of 11—13 on 15 grade Borg scale.

Resting systolic BP, HR, rate-pressure product, maximal exercise time. Resting systolic BP, HR and rate pressure product decreased in both groups. Submaximal systolic BP and rate-pressure product also decreased in both groups. Maximal exercise time increased in both groups.

Exercise induced perfusion changes in the infarct zone is proportional to the amount of residual viable myocardium. Endothelial function by FMD , insulin resistance, adipocytokines and inflammatory markers. Summary There is great interest in changes as a means to effectively reduce cardiovascular disease risks. Exercise training enhances endothelial function in young men. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Clinical correlates and heritability of flow-mediated dilation in the community: Regular physical exercise corrects endothelial dysfunction and improves exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure.

Regular aerobic exercise augments endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in normotensive as well as hypertensive subjects: The effect of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on vascular function in type 2 diabetes.

Physical training improves flow-mediated dilation in patients with the polymetabolic syndrome. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. Home-based versus hospital-based exercise programs in patients with coronary artery disease: Impact of physical training and detraining on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with recent acute myocardial infarction.

Correction of endothelial dysfunction in chronic heart failure: Exercise training, vascular function, and functional capacity in middle-aged subjects. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Franklin BA, Cushman M. Recent advances in preventive cardiology and lifestyle medicine: Beyond established and novel risk factors lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.

Moderate exercise is an antioxidant: Free Radical Biology and Medicine. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. Short-term exercise improves myocardial tolerance to in vivo ischemia-reperfusion in the rat. Journal of Applied Physiology. Exercise provides direct biphasic cardioprotection via manganese superoxide dismutase activation. Journal of Experimental Medicine. Exercise training preserves coronary flow and reduces infarct size after ischemia-reperfusion in rat heart. Exercise-induced protection against myocardial apoptosis and necrosis: MnSOD, calcium-handling proteins, and calpain.

MnSOD antisense treatment and exercise-induced protection against arrhythmias. Gastaldelli A, Basta G. Ectopic fat and cardiovascular disease: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. Visceral fat in hypertension: Human epicardial adipose tissue: Echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue is related to anthropometric and clinical parameters of metabolic syndrome: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.

Ectopic fat storage in heart, blood vessels and kidneys in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. International Journal of Obesity. Relation of epicardial adipose tissue to coronary atherosclerosis.

American Journal of Cardiology. Lipotoxic heart disease in obese rats: Myocardial steatosis is an independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Human epicardial adipose tissue is a source of inflammatory mediators. Aerobic exercise training reduces epicardial fat in obese men. The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: Overexpression of the rat inducible kD heat stress protein in a transgenic mouse increases the resistance of the heart to ischemic injury.

Journal of Clinical Investigation. Heat shock, deciliation and release from anoxia induce the synthesis of the same set of polypeptides in starved T. Similar dose response of heat shock protein synthesis and intracellular pH change in yeast. American Journal of Physiology. A role for a kilodaton heat shock protein in lysosomal degradation of intracellular proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry.

The effects of glucose on protein synthesis and thermosensitivity in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Exercise, heat shock proteins, and myocardial protection from I-R injury. Small heat shock proteins and protection against ischemic injury in cardiac myocytes.

Myocardial heat shock protein 70 expression in young and old rats after identical exercise programs. Journals of Gerontology A. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology.

Overexpression of the stress protein Grp94 reduces cardiomyocyte necrosis due to calcium overload and simulated ischemia. Short-term exercise does not increase ER stress protein expression in cardiac muscle. Exercise by lifelong voluntary wheel running reduces subsarcolemmal and interfibrillar mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production in the heart.

Exercise induces a cardiac mitochondrial phenotype that resists apoptotic stimuli. Oxidative stress by monoamine oxidase mediates receptor-independent cardiomyocyte apoptosis by serotonin and postischemic myocardial injury.

Oxidative stress-dependent sphingosine kinase-1 inhibition mediates monoamine oxidase A-associated cardiac cell apoptosis. Exercise training induces a cardioprotective phenotype and alterations in cardiac subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondrial proteins. The first minutes of reperfusion: Calcium, mitochondria and reperfusion injury: Ischaemic preconditioning delays ischaemia induced cellular electrical uncoupling in rabbit myocardium by activation of ATP sensitive potassium channels.

Yao Z, Gross GJ. Activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels lowers threshold for ischemic preconditioning in dogs. Effects of the K ATP channel opener bimakalim on coronary blood flow, monophasic action potential duration, and infarct size in dogs. KATP channels and myocardial preconditioning: Sarcolemmal and mitochondrial KATP channels mediate cardioprotection in chronically hypoxic hearts.

Mitochondrial KATP channel opening is important during index ischemia and following myocardial reperfusion in ischemic preconditioned rat hearts.

Exercise induces early and late myocardial preconditioning in dogs. Cardioprotection afforded by chronic exercise is mediated by the sarcolemmal, and not the mitochondrial, isoform of the KATP channel in the rat. Mitochondrial KATP channel inhibition blunts arrhythmia protection in ischemic exercised hearts. Annual Review of Physiology. The late phase of preconditioning. Exercise training reduces myocardial lipid peroxidation following short-term ischemia-reperfusion.

Prognostic value of endothelial function. The clinical implications of endothelial dysfunction. Nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation in human subjects. Landmesser U, Drexler H. The clinical significance of endothelial dysfunction. Current Opinion in Cardiology. Prognostic significance of endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive patients. Prognostic role of reversible endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive postmenopausal women.

Prognostic value of abnormal vasoreactivity of epicardial coronary arteries to sympathetic stimulation in patients with normal coronary angiograms. Prognostic impact of coronary vasodilator dysfunction on adverse long-term outcome of coronary heart disease. Long-term follow-up of patients with mild coronary artery disease and endothelial dysfunction.

Late prognostic value of flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery of patients with chest pain. Prognostic value of coronary vascular endothelial dysfunction.

Predictive value of noninvasively determined endothelial dysfunction for long-term cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Lerman A, Zeiher AM. Fleming I, Busse R. Molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Regulation of the vascular extracellular superoxide dismutase by nitric oxide and exercise training. Dysfunctional regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase eNOS expression in response to exercise in mice lacking one eNOS gene.

Regular physical activity improves endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease by increasing phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Effect of exercise on coronary endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease.

New England Journal of Medicine. Effects of exercise training on left ventricular function and peripheral resistance in patients with chronic heart failure: Journal of the American Medical Association. Cardiovascular effects of exercise training: Vascular free radical release: Oscillatory and steady laminar shear stress differentially affect human endothelial redox state: Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression by hydrogen peroxide.

Exercise training regulates SOD-1 and oxidative stress in porcine aortic endothelium. Involvement of endothelin-1 in habitual exercise-induced increase in arterial compliance. Exercise, vascular wall and cardiovascular diseases: Endurance training reduces circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine and myeloperoxidase levels in persons at risk of coronary events. Running exercise of different duration and intensity: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation.

A hemangioendothelioma-derived cell line: Generation and degradation of human endostatin proteins by various proteinases. The short and long forms of type XVIII collagen show clear tissue specificities in their expression and location in basement membrane zones in humans.

American Journal of Pathology. Shichiri M, Hirata Y. Another short-term effect of the circulatory system during exercise is how blood is delivered throughout the body. When a person is at rest, only about 15 per cent of the blood flowing through the body is carried to the skeletal muscles.

However, during physical activity, the body reroutes the majority of the blood from the major organs to the skeletal muscles as well as to the skin. A person's blood pressure is temporarily affected during exercise. A healthy person normally has a systolic blood pressure of to millimetres of mercury. While exercising, a person's systolic blood pressure may reach levels of more than millimetres of mercury. Exercise also has long-term effects on the circulatory system.

Resistance exercise, such as lifting weights, allows the heart's walls to grow stronger and thicker. Endurance exercises, such as swimming, improves muscle strength and stamina. Over time, endurance exercise aids in increasing the size of the ventricle, which in turn allows more blood to flow through the body. When more blood flows through the body, the heart is not forced to work as hard, even when resting. According to the Texas Heart Institute website, exercise has other long-term effects on the cardiovascular system.

Blood flow to the skin also increases. The blood vessels serving the skin dilate to allow more blood to the surface of the body. This helps to cool the body down during exercise. Your blood pH--the level of acidity in your blood-- becomes more acidic.

Your body uses by-products of carbon dioxide to buffer the hydrogen ions in your bloodstream. Hydrogen ions are electrically charged particles in your body. The greater the number of hydrogen ions, the higher the acidity. Because you breathe faster during cardiovascular exercise, you expel carbon dioxide faster than you would normally. This gives the hydrogen ions time to accumulate. Decrease in resting heart rate. Because the rigours of regular exercise require so much work from the cardiovascular system, sedentary periods become even easier for the heart by comparison.

The heart eventually becomes more efficient, and no longer needs to beat as quickly to supply the body with blood while at rest.

Stroke volume increases at rest. Resting heart rate is able to slow down because the heart is now trained to pump a larger quantity of blood with every beat.

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Exercise has multiple short-term and long-term effects on your cardiovascular system. Your cardiovascular system is also called the circulatory system. It is made up of your heart, arteries, your veins and capillaries.

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Long Term Effects of Exercise on the Cardiovascular System A fairly well conditioned athlete can see long term cardiovascular effects from exercising in as little as two weeks. People who are just beginning to exercise will see effects in up to four weeks.

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Short term/immediate effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system Test your knowledge Question Benefits of short term effects of exercise Increased oxygen delivery to the working muscles. Increased removal of carbon dioxide Increased blood flow. During exercise, the cardiovascular system is called upon to meet the increased needs of the body in many ways. The cardiovascular system rushes oxygen to hardworking muscles, returns used blood to the lungs to be reoxygenated, and delivers fuel to the active tissues of the body.

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Short-term effects on cardiovascular system would be increased: Heart rate will continue to rise in direct proportion to the intensity of exercise until maximum heart rate is achieved. Stroke volume amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle by each beat increases, because of intensive exercise. The short and long term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system Ally Laconi Updated April 17, During exercise the cardiovascular system is called upon to meet the increased needs of .