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❶Just like FGM, however, circumcision is not a monolith:

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The most common complication of female circumcision is the lack of sensation during sexual intercourse due to the removal of the clitoral gland and the labia minora Cutting the Rose. This is because there is scar tissue that forms, because of accidental cuts into the vaginal wall Cutting the Rose. This in turn leads to painful menstruation, or otherwise referred to as dysmenorrhoea.

This happens because the menstrual blood cannot flow freely. Since the vaginal hole is so small this also leads to painful intercourse.

Another long-term condition that may occur is a tumor that is composed of nerve tissue, at the point of section of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris. This also leads to excruciating pain for the female that has undergone this procedure. There are also psychological effects that occur in women that have had this procedure done to them. Several women that have been interviewed say that because this mutilation has been done to them, they have feeling of anxiety, terror, humiliation, and betrayal to the people that have done this to them Female Genital Mutilation.

People that are pro female circumcision say that there is nothing wrong at all with this practice; in fact, they actually praise it. Carla Obermeyer, a medial anthropologist and epidemiologist at Harvard University, published a comprehensive review of the literature on female genital surgeries in Africa. She concluded that the claims of anti-FGM movements are highly exaggerated and do not match reality.

By looking at scholarly articles she found that most of the publications had no hard evidence, they were all critical articles by people that just did not like the procedure practiced What about Female Genital Mutilation. Tribes in Africa like the Okiek do not talk about female circumcision in terms of reducing sexual pleasure or desire, but they talk about it in terms of cleanliness, beauty and adulthood What about Female Genital Mutilation.

Another tribe called the Kikuyu assured Scientist Robert Edgerton that women that are circumcised continue to be orgasmic, and actually enjoy sexual intercourse. Studies also have been conducted in rural and urban Egyptian women that have had the operation done on them.

Out of fifty women that were interviewed only two of them resented that they have been circumcised. There are other notable facts about this cultural practice. For one thing, most African women do not think about circumcision in human-rights terms. Women who endorse female circumcision typically argue that it is an import part of their cultural heritage or their religion, while women who do not endorse the practice typically argue that it is not permitted by their cultural heritage or their religion.

It seems like the people that are not familiar with this ritual always try to knock it down without really knowing what is actually being done. On the other hand people that live in the societies where it is practiced embrace the event. Another survey developed by The Health department asked 3, if they were circumcised. Of the women that were circumcised 96 percent of them said that they had or would have their daughters circumcised.

They also asked if they women favored the continuation of the practice, and an astonishing 90 percent of circumcised women said that they would favor continuation of the ritual Shweder Based on the female cultures like in Somalia and in Sudan, it is believed by women that their genital alterations actually improve their bodies.

They say that the alterations make them more beautiful, more feminine, more civilized, and much more honorable Shweder They are more beautiful because their bodies are made smooth, and the flesh that they used to have is thought of as being ugly and odious.

That is how people feel about the male penis in the United States. Most women prefer a man who is circumcised to one who was left intact. The women fell more feminine because unmodified genitals in males as well as females are seen as sexually ambiguous. The women who answered these questions say that they have acquired full female identity, they become more social, and they receive the support of all the women in their culture Shweder They believe that they are more civilized because their alteration is a symbolic action that makes women have much self-control over their sexual feelings and pleasure.

So that makes the process of getting married much more sacred. In the cultures that practice this procedure, not only do they do this to females; they also do this to the boys in those communities as well. It symbolized a new chapter in their lives, the chapter of being brought into adulthood.

The children who undergo this procedure do not dread it; in fact, they actually look forward to it. Male genital cutting is performed at different ages, in different environments, with different tools, by different groups, for different reasons. And, morally, I think the law is correct here. The story is very different when it comes to male circumcision. Just like FGM, however, circumcision is not a monolith: Traditional Muslim circumcisions are done while the boy is fully conscious, between the ages of five and eight, and sometimes later.

Subincision, seen primarily in aboriginal Australia, involves slicing open the urethral passage on the underside of the penis from the scrotum to the glans, often affecting urination as well as sexual function. Similar to female genital cutting rites performed under comparable conditions and often by the very same groups , these operations frequently cause hemorrhage, infection, mangling, and loss of the sexual organ.

In fact, between and , more than half a million boys were hospitalised due to botched circumcisions in South Africa alone. More than lost their lives. Since this figure was obtained by a special freedom of information request and otherwise would not have been public knowledge , it has to be multiplied by orders of magnitude to get a sense of the true scope of the problem.

One recurrent claim, recently underlined by the US Centers for Disease Control CDC , is that male circumcision can confer a number of health benefits, such as a small reduction in the absolute risk of contracting certain sexually transmitted infections. This is not typically seen as being the case for FGM.

However, both parts of this claim are misleading. Certainly the most extreme types of FGM will not contribute to good health on balance, but neither will the spearheads-and-dirty-knives versions of genital cutting on boys. What about other forms of FGM? Indeed, the vulva has all sorts of warm, moist places where bacteria or viruses could get trapped, such as underneath the clitoral hood, or among the folds of the labia; so who is to say that removing some of that tissue with a sterile surgical tool might not reduce the risk of various diseases?

So we simply do not know. Many European medical experts dispute these studies, and detect more than a whiff of cultural bias in favour of circumcision due to its peculiar status as a birth ritual in American society.

The recent statement by the CDC is a case in point. In this case, one relevant harm would be the involuntary loss of a healthy, functional, and erotogenic genital structure that one might wish to have experienced intact. In most cases, the major social function of the cutting is to mark the transition from childhood to adulthood, and it is typically performed as part of an elaborate ceremony.

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- Female Genital Mutilation in Africa ital Mutilation in Sudan In the country of Sudan, in Northern Africa, there is a procedure that is tradition and is performed on most women called female genital mutilation, or FGM, which used to be known as female circumcision.

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Female Genital Mutilation essays Female genital mutilation is a horrendous injustice that occurs everyday in this world. Female genital mutilation is wrong for several reasons. It is wrong because women can experience physical health consequences, psychological health consequences and it is a form.

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Female Genital Mutilation Essay - The practice of female genital mutilation, also known as female circumcision, occurs throughout the world, but it is most common in Africa. Female genital mutilation is a tradition and social custom . Functionalism can best be used to describe Female Genital Mutilation due to the role each group plays in their society. Functionalism is “a theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to society’s equilibrium” (Henslin ).

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The definition of female genital mutilation (FGM) is referred to as the removal of part, or all, of the female genitalia (Female Genital Mutilation). There are five different categories that fall under Female genital mutilation they are: Circumcision, Excision, Infibulation, and Intermediate infibulation (Cutting the Rose). Essay on Female Genital Mutilation Two million girls are subjected to female genital mutilation in the name of tradition every year (Win News). That is a large amount of females that undergo this procedure.