This is an opinion and not the criticism as I am a novice in the world of literature and research. However, the fact remains that new vistas find the course with spontaneity and after thought effect. I found the whole book very essential and it should be included in as text book in every discipline of knowledge.
I am thankful to the person who introduced me such a nice book with the easiest approach to learn. I am also thankful to you Mr. I salute Syed farzand Ali Shah. He is currently a freelance research and evaluation consultant in Western Australia. My library Help Advanced Book Search. A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners. As with the first the Second Edition of Research Methodology is designed specifically for students with no previous experience or knowledge of research and research methodology.
Some of the major research areas covered by the book are: User Review - Flag as inappropriate It is a god book for teacher N student but how can I get this book in soft copy. There are several important aspects to research methodology.
This is a summary of the key concepts in scientific research and an attempt to erase some common misconceptions in science. Steps of the scientific method are shaped like an hourglass - starting from general questions, narrowing down to focus on one specific aspect , and designing research where we can observe and analyze this aspect. At last, we conclude and generalize to the real world. Researchers organize their research by formulating and defining a research problem.
This helps them focus the research process so that they can draw conclusions reflecting the real world in the best possible way. In research, a hypothesis is a suggested explanation of a phenomenon. A null hypothesis is a hypothesis which a researcher tries to disprove. Research methodology involves the researcher providing an alternative hypothesis, a research hypothesis , as an alternate way to explain the phenomenon.
The research hypothesis is often based on observations that evoke suspicion that the null hypothesis is not always correct. In the Stanley Milgram Experiment , the null hypothesis was that the personality determined whether a person would hurt another person, while the research hypothesis was that the role, instructions and orders were much more important in determining whether people would hurt others.
A variable is something that changes. It changes according to different factors. Some variables change easily, like the stock-exchange value, while other variables are almost constant, like the name of someone.
Researchers are often seeking to measure variables. The variable can be a number, a name, or anything where the value can change. An example of a variable is temperature. The temperature varies according to other variable and factors. You can measure different temperature inside and outside. If it is a sunny day, chances are that the temperature will be higher than if it's cloudy.
Another thing that can make the temperature change is whether something has been done to manipulate the temperature, like lighting a fire in the chimney. In research, you typically define variables according to what you're measuring.
The independent variable is the variable which the researcher would like to measure the cause , while the dependent variable is the effect or assumed effect , dependent on the independent variable. These variables are often stated in experimental research , in a hypothesis , e.
In explorative research methodology, e. They might not be stated because the researcher does not have a clear idea yet on what is really going on. Confounding variables are variables with a significant effect on the dependent variable that the researcher failed to control or eliminate - sometimes because the researcher is not aware of the effect of the confounding variable.
The key is to identify possible confounding variables and somehow try to eliminate or control them. Operationalization is to take a fuzzy concept conceptual variables , such as ' helping behavior ', and try to measure it by specific observations, e.
The selection of the research method is crucial for what conclusions you can make about a phenomenon. It affects what you can say about the cause and factors influencing the phenomenon. It is also important to choose a research method which is within the limits of what the researcher can do.
Time, money, feasibility, ethics and availability to measure the phenomenon correctly are examples of issues constraining the research. Choosing the scientific measurements are also crucial for getting the correct conclusion. Some measurements might not reflect the real world, because they do not measure the phenomenon as it should.
To test a hypothesis , quantitative research uses significance tests to determine which hypothesis is right. The significance test can show whether the null hypothesis is more likely correct than the research hypothesis.
Research methodology in a number of areas like social sciences depends heavily on significance tests. A significance test may even drive the research process in a whole new direction, based on the findings. The t-test also called the Student's T-Test is one of many statistical significance tests, which compares two supposedly equal sets of data to see if they really are alike or not.
The t-test helps the researcher conclude whether a hypothesis is supported or not.
The methods section describes actions to be taken to investigate a research problem and the rationale for the application of specific procedures or techniques used to identify, select, process, and analyze information applied to understanding the problem, thereby, allowing the reader to critically evaluate a study’s overall validity and reliability.
The methodology may include publication research, interviews, surveys and other research techniques, and could include both present and historical information.
A research method is a systematic plan for conducting research. Sociologists draw on a variety of both qualitative and quantitative research methods, including experiments, survey research, participant observation, and secondary data. A methodology is the design process for carrying out research or the development of a procedure and is not in itself an instrument, or method, or procedure for doing things. Methodology and method are not .
Research methodology in a number of areas like social sciences depends heavily on significance tests. A significance test may even drive the research process in a whole new direction, based on the findings. Research methods can be used alone to solve a problem, or explore a question as part of a piece of work. They can also be a key part of writing a thesis or dissertation. For more about this, see our section on Writing a Dissertation, and particularly Writing Your Methodology.