If two authors share the same last name, put the author's first name initial before the last name. An example of parenthetical citing: Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Wordsworth An example of in-sentence citing: Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process Cite an unknown author by using a shortened title of the work and not the author's name.
The title should be placed in quotation marks if it's a short work, like an article, or it should be italicized if it's a longer work, like a book. Also, provide the page number s.
Both the title and the page number s should be placed in parentheses at the end of your quotation or paraphrase. Cite two or three authors by listing all the last names alphabetically in the parentheses or within in the sentence. Include the most relevant information for non-print sources. Many digital, visual, and auditory formats do not have page numbers or other information that corresponds to that used when citing traditional print sources. Since page numbers for ebooks will vary from device to device, include the chapter number or other section heading instead, if possible: Place the parenthetical citation at the end of the line of text.
Position the parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence where you include the quote or reference. The parenthetical citation should come before the period at the end of the sentence. Alter the basic format if necessary. If a source does not have a named author, just put a shortened version of the title followed by the page number in the parenthetical citation. If you are citing multiple works by the same author, include a brief title of the source. For example, you may have parenthetical citations that look like: Use a limited citation if your text contains signal words.
Keep track of consecutive citations. If you reference the same work several times in row, you can use a short form parenthetical citation. Your reader will assume the subsequent citations reference the same source. Give a full citation when you reference a new work. Check the MLA style guide if you are doing more advanced research.
The basic format of in-text citations is useful and acceptable for many forms of writing. However, if you are doing specialized research or writing for a specific audience, you may be expected to include additional information in your citations, such as edition or chapter numbers. If you are a student, check with your teacher about what kind of citation requirements you may need to follow.
Gather the information that identifies each source. The most recent set of MLA guidelines relies on a set of principles that will allow you to cite any type of source, rather than a set of separate rules for different media book, website, film, interview, podcast, etc.
You will list the details, with a period between each. Put the author and title of the source first. List the author if known starting with the last name. Cite web postings as you would a standard web entry. Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date. Follow with the date of access. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known.
Editor, screen name, author, or compiler name if available. Max Number of Rooms? Next, place the tweet in its entirety in quotations, inserting a period after the tweet within the quotations. Include the date and time of posting, using the reader's time zone; separate the date and time with a comma and end with a period.
Include the date accessed if you deem necessary. Video and audio sources need to be documented using the same basic guidelines for citing print sources in MLA style. Include as much descriptive information as necessary to help readers understand the type and nature of the source you are citing.
List the username as the author. Use the phrase, Comment on, before the title. Use quotation marks around the article title. Name the publisher, date, time listed on near the comment , and the URL. Purdue Online Writing Lab. Electronic Sources Web Publications Summary: Common Words that Sound Alike Numbers: Text Elements Visual Rhetoric: Process and Materials Overview: An Introduction Researching Programs: Practical Considerations Researching Programs: Drafting Your Statement Statements of Purpose: The Basics In-Text Citations: Basic Rules Reference List: Articles in Periodicals Reference List: Other Print Sources Reference List: Electronic Sources Reference List: Organization and Structure Graduate Writing Workshops: Introductions Graduate Writing Workshops: Literature Reviews Graduate Writing Workshops: Style Graduate Writing Workshops: Editing and Proofreading Graduate Writing Workshops: Copyright and Plagiarism Collaborative Authorship Handout:
The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1.) upon the source medium (e.g. Print, Web, DVD) and (2.) upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited (bibliography) page. Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page.
The In-text Citation. When citing a research paper, include references within two sections: The quotes used within the essay; The Works Cited page at the end; The citation information in the body of the paper itself is called the "in-text citation”.
There are many ways to cite your source within a research paper; one of the most common is the MLA in-text parenthetical citation method. Quotations, summaries, paraphrases, and any other material used from a source must be cited. MLA 8 Website Citation: Social Media. In an increasingly digital world, social media platforms have become one of the most popular sources students turn to when writing a research paper. When citing social media in your work, follow the same format as an MLA citation for a website.
This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page. It is always a good idea to maintain personal copies of electronic information, when possible.