Prof Frierdrich gives six primary criteria of bureaucracy. Incidentally Pfiffner also has used the term in this sense. Laski has also described characteristics of Bureaucracy as—a passion for routine in administration, the sacrifice of flexibility to rule, delay in the making of decision and a refusal to embark upon experiment. Where large-scale enterprise exists, there bureaucracy will be found. An analysis of all these views prompts us to conclude that bureaucracy may be defined as a type of administrative organization or a government by civil servants for their own aggrandizement or a professional class hierarchically organized.
In the latter sense, bureaucracy is indispensable for democracy. Those who condemn it in democratic regimes in fact seem to be allergic to bureaucratic tendencies which some of the officials exhibit while dealing with the public. Ancient Chinese administrative personnel who were influenced by the teachings of Confucius is the example.
These bureaucrats led an exemplary life. Many socialist writers refer about impediment by the aristocratic civil services in the way of socialistic reforms contemplated by the Labour Party. In ancient India Brahmins and Kshatriyas could hold the pivotal offices because of their labelling as two upper classes. If public appointments are made on the basis of personal favour or as political rewards it is termed as Patronage Bureaucracy.
To the critics the spoils was the well accepted theory in USA prior to the passage of Pendaltion Act It had a great corrupting influences on the socio-economic life of the country. It was denounced as an anachronism due to its lack of competence concealed avariciousness and careless discipline. If the Civil Services are appointed on the basis of merit through competitive examination it is termed as Merit Bureaucracy.
However, merit democracy also is under clouds due to undue interference finance of the Politicians, rather than excessive control on the day to day functioning of Bureaucracy. Bureaucracy seems to be a necessity in a modem welfare state. Safeguards may be kept in mind to rid it of avoidable evils which have become permanent eyesore for the critics. No political favorite be given a precedence over the deserving bureaucrats.
If these safeguards and methods suggested by Hynemen are kept in mind there is nothing to be afraid of bureaucracy. In fact, democracy cannot do without bureaucracy. If love for their country is kept in the core of their heart, the civil services can prove a boon for a democratic country.
The greatest criticism against bureaucracy is levelled due to its lengthy and roundabout way of doing work. However urgent the case may be, it has to run its full course of going up and down. The minutest thing is to be written down in an official way and proper procedure is followed.
Boards sat upon them. In short, all the business of the country went through the circumlocution office, except the business that never came out of it and its name was legion. Men so trained start thinking the routine of business not a means but an end. Closely associated with circumlocution is the defect of red-tapism which means blind following of formal rules and regulations.
Though following prescribed rules is not itself bad but the dogged and blind attachment to them certainly impairs the efficiency of work because then the case will not be decided on its merit but on old and out-dated precedents. The civil servants are trained in rules and regulations. Bureaucrats seem to efface from mind that the community does not exist for the filling up of forms or obeying regulations. Government by law necessitates conformity with the established procedures and legal regulations.
Bureaucracy is not usually responsive to the needs of the people. It considers itself as the self-appointed guardian and interpreter of public interest.
It keeps on following its old standardized procedures and does not react to the changing political climate of the country. In India after independence the attitude of some civil servants towards the people is of the same authoritativeness as was during British rule. The official of necessity becomes specialist, intellectually isolated, oriented towards techniques rather than people.
Their vision due to their training and experience in one particular institutionalized activity becomes myopic. Bureaucracy has been condemned as despotic since it craves for power. This is where Weber coined his term of "The Iron Cage" of rationality.
The idea was that because bureaucracy was becoming so dominant in every aspect of life and work more and more people's lives were lived within the constraints of a rationalised system.
Grey takes it ones step further and claims that bureaucracy undermines our very humanity. Whilst this may seem ludicrous, he presents a very interesting idea. We live in a world "in which every experience is organised from the hospital in which we are born to the undertakers that take us to our graves" Grey, The word itself in the modern day world is often frowned on and associated with issues of red tape as well as a "needless waste and pedantic obsession with rules" Grey, It is essential in many organisations nowadays that there is a paper trail, so that it can be proved everything was done how it was meant to be.
However, the unintended consequences of bureaucracy go much further than this and begin with the idea that bureaucracy is thought of as a mechanical form of organisation. Whilst this means that every part is designed perfectly and operates in a predictable and standard way, it also means that the people within the organisation have to function as if they are merely cogs which lead to a number of key unintended consequences.
There is firstly an issue regarding the levels of motivation among employees. A lack of personal commitment is bred from having to follow set rules and having no discretion about doing so. These standard procedures that must be followed also provides little interest or stimulation for employees which again weakens their commitment to the organisation. It is not a new idea that motivation is clearly linked to job satisfaction and that higher motivation leads to better work performance.
It therefore follows that in bureaucracies where motivation is low employees will simply perform sub optimally meaning they are not as efficient as first thought. Following on from the above problem, is that this lack of motivation often translates into poor customer service. Employees will simply follow rules and procedures blindly with little regard for the customer in the process.
Bureaucratic rules are also designed for the benefit of the organisation, not the customer meaning they will not be changed to suit the demands of one individual.
They are indifferent towards the convenience of the citizen. Bureaucracy is generally inflexible in its attitude. It keeps on following its old procedures and does not react to the changing social and political climate of the country. Routine procedures breed inflexibility.
The official becomes oriented towards techniques rather than people. It is another irritating aspect of bureaucracy. No official can take a decision without consulting several officers at different levels of hierarchy. The citizen is incapable to find the person whom he can pin down for a decision. He goes from table to table and gets lost in the circumlocution office. Where impersonality rules, the sense oi personal responsibility is reduced.
Bifurcation means splitting off in two different parts. Bureaucracy exists to serve the citizen and procedures are developed with service in mind. Actually, however, service to the citizen goes into the background and procedures take the foreground. The procedures become an end in themselves. Bureaucracy has created a new social class which consists of white collar workers. They assume an excessive sense of self importance.
They remain aloof from the common man and are indifferent to his feeling or convenience. They have their separate clubs and mode of life. They are given to the notion of false prestige. They have a vested interest in the growth of government. Once established, bureaucracies become stable political structures. Ramsay Muir was very critical of the growth of the power of bureaucracy. A bureaucrat becomes a soulless automation. He develops an authoritative attitude. His vision becomes myopic. In short, bureaucracy has produced numerous social consequences.
Robson has summarised the defects of bureaucracy in these words. There is no denying the truth that the modern government is clustered up with bureaus that have outlived their usefulness today and have become routinized self-maintaining agencies.
In India the bureaucratic machinery has grown in size but not in quality. It has become politicised and corrupt. There is a close nexus between the politician, bureaucrat and criminal. But this only emphasizes the need for the rational organisation of bureaucracy. The system should be so built as to avoid unnecessary delay, red-tapism and formalism and to create among the functionaries a sense of participation in and identification with it.
Checks should be devised that bureaucrats remain like true servants of the people. Organisation and Bureaucracy Sociology.
Bureaucracy and the Church of God - Max Weber, German sociologist, social theorist, and economist, explicated the theory of bureaucracy in which he details the monocratic bureaucracy “as an ideal form that maximized rationality” (Bolman & Deal, , p. 48).
Essay on Bureaucracy: it’s Meaning and Growth! Meaning of Bureaucracy. The growth of Bureaucracy is a major social trend of modern society. It is found in .
Essay on Bureaucracy; Essay on Bureaucracy. Words 2 Pages. Bureaucracy The word “bureaucracy” has a negative connotation to many people. The fact is that our current system of government would not be able to survive without bureaucracies. The bureaucracy has become the “fourth branch” of the government, it has quasi-legislative and. Essay # 3. Characteristics of Bureaucracy: Max Weber in his Essays on Sociology has given three characteristics of bureaucracy: (i) The regular activities required for the purposes of the bureaucratically governed structure are distributed in a fixed way as official duties.
Bureaucracy Essay - Bureaucratic institutions were formed as a way to manage large-scale collective action, to increase organization and coordination. Max Weber is known for his analysis of the bureaucratic institution. In the Weberian sense, bureaucracies are composed of a hierarchical structure of authority in which command flows downward and. Nov 03, · This essay focuses on the assertion that “Too much and too little bureaucracy in an organization demotivate employees and cause them stress.” According to James & George (), bureaucracy is a formal system of organization and administration .