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Duke University – Sample Essay for Graduate Program in Public Policy

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❶This policy development process is often organic and irregular, due to the inherent complexity of public policy problems and the need to address competing interests.

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Public policy decisions are primarily made to improve the health, safety and well-being of citizens, and may set standards for educational institutions, transportation operations and housing facilities. Some public policy is concerned with short-term issues, such as coordinating relief efforts following natural disasters or to alleviate economic concerns produced by a sudden downturn in the market.

Public policies are set in place primarily by elected officials, who are voted into office for a set period of time by citizens. Public policy affects short-term issues as well as complex and intractable issues that occur in multiple locations and are carried out across generations. Public policy sets some societal norms for behavior, and also strives to improve the quality of life for people. Why Is Public Policy Important? Quick Answer Public policy is important because policy choices and decisions made by those in power affect nearly every aspect of daily life, including education, healthcare and national security.

Today, as a public servant, I still desire to help others who are not so fortunate. Providing health care to 44 million uninsured Americans, while keeping insurance affordable, is one of the most difficult challenges facing policymakers. I want to work in state or local government to resolve this health care crisis and ensure that the disadvantaged get the care they need and deserve.

For a while, I considered such options as law school or international relations, but I always returned to my desire to impact public life. My career in public policy began as a legislative assistant at the American Legislative Exchange Council ALEC , a non-profit educational organization that couples voices from the state legislature and the private sector to work on salient policy issues.

I wanted to promote policies which had the potential to improve life for the greater public, for I could not see myself spending a lifetime working within an isolated industry. Helping small business owners is a cause close to my heart. For nearly 30 years, my family has owned a barbecue restaurant in the Washington, D. At the NFIB, I valued my contributions because I know small businesses have a huge economic impact on our country and they are unquestionably an important constituency.

Nevertheless, I felt uncomfortable working for a special interest group—even for one I deeply cared about. My goals are now clear: I want to develop and advocate policy decisions that will benefit society as a whole, not just a few influential special interest groups.

I want to uncover the objective truth of issues and tackle them in the best interests of the nation, not distort the facts for the benefit of a small group. I know I am able to look beyond partisan politics to solve problems for this country. Because of these unbending desires to reveal truth and to remain committed to fair and equal advancement for all citizens, I think of myself as an ideal candidate for public service.

Additionally, I consider my active interest in politics to aid my pursuit of a career in public policy. However, my faith in the political process began to wane as I witnessed sensible public policy proposals torn apart by partisan conflict. I saw advocacy groups distort facts, and provide extreme, over-blown examples, jeopardizing prudent policy decisions. I observed how powerful elected officials, ensnared in their own partisan rancor, would block fair and balanced legislation which offered the most practical solution for their constituents.

But I also encountered many thoughtful and wise people who devote their lives to public service. These devoted individuals inspired me. Policy Change Anti-Bullying as a Policy Change Students have been bullied while at school since the beginnings of education. Originally they might have been bullied by the people who taught them, but much of that does not continue into the present say. However, students bullying other students does continue. Every child needs an advocate at their school whose function it is to make sure that they are not being bullied.

Many times this happens informally when a school does not have a bullying program, but it can also happen formally. The need for advocacy programs within schools, both primary and secondary, that allow children to feel that they are safe from the time that they leave their homes until they arrive back at home in the afternoon is elemental.

Because of the backlash that has happened at some schools due to being bullied, it is more vital than ever. Policy The state response to Ebola should be a coordinated communications effort. This will serve a number of purposes. First, it will maintain fiscal discipline.

Second, communication is key to maintaining public order should there be an outbreak of Ebola. Third, communication helps to reduce the risk of an outbreak, because all members of our community will know how to avoid spreading Ebola. The recent revelations that the World Health Organization and others botched their response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa has done little to calm the public here at home regarding this disease. A government that deals in evidence and has a realistic world view does not need to address irrational panic, but the fact that global and national-level bodies seem challenged to come up with a plan to deal with Ebola places the onus on the state to devise such solutions.

Already, some states, such as…… [Read More]. President Obama's foreign policy towards Russia has attracted huge concern among policymakers and the public in light of recent events in Ukraine. Russia's aggression has challenged the administration's foreign policy since it is in the process of gulping up the Ukraine one step at a time with very minimal cost and less risk.

Obama's foreign policy towards Russia has been accused of enabling the gradual acquisition of Ukraine rather than hindering it. This article focuses on examining this policy and demonstrating why it is largely ineffective, especially in light of President Obama's plans to promote a policy for a globalized 21st Century. In addition to assessing the ineffectiveness of this foreign policy, the article also proposes some of the changes that could be made to promote and enhance its effectiveness.

Russia's aggression that has enabled the country to slowly acquire Ukraine is an issue that has generated huge…… [Read More]. Canadian Public Policy Creation Influences. Public policy development is a complex process involving multiple stakeholders and institutions.

Moreover, the nature of public policy development varies depending on whether the policies are foreign or domestic. Holloway points out the three key influences on foreign policy in Canada, including information coming from foreign embassies with direct access to international issues and affairs.

Other influences on foreign policy include formal analysis, which often takes place domestically. Finally, bureaucratic machines regulate messages incoming to government offices Holloway, Yet the influences on Canadian domestic policy include ancillary issues ranging from shifts in social norms and values to recent judicial action. For example, Pal points out the role of both the courts and public opinion on the legalization of same-sex marriage.

The three most important influences on Canadian public policy in general include public opinion expressed in terms of values and norms , the courts expressed through judicial action ,…… [Read More]. Consideration of a Public Policy on Homelessness. Public Policy Assessment Homelessness is a public policy issue that is relevant for almost every community, especially within the veteran community, where there is a general appreciation that individuals who have served their country should be looked after.

The development of policies to improve a situation can be complex with many different influences and concerns various stakeholders. These stages will be used to consider the issue of homelessness. Understanding the problem Homelessness may be defined in different ways, in United States it usually incorporates a relatively narrow definition, including only those who are living on the streets, or who are housed in emergency accommodation Daly, Most of us of Generation Y mercifully cannot even remember a time when AIDS was not even a name, but something called 'the gay cancer.

An Overview Policy Implications It has been estimated that almost five percent of School aged children out of population of 2. Contrasting other disabilities like autism or learning disabilities the ADHD was not in the special education previously. The students with ADHD were not included in the special education policy and thus the students and parents were suffering as they could not get the necessary interventions at School suggested by the doctor.

Andrea Golden, ecently Education Minister of Ontario has announced to accommodate the students with ADHD and thus relaxed the parents as previously parents were spending from their pockets on theirs children with ADHD.

A memorandum has been posted on the Ministry of Education…… [Read More]. One of the key distinctions to be found within the first two chapters of this book is the difference between policy analysis and policy advocacy. Policy analysis is primarily an examination for what and why public policy is, by analyzing both causes and effects of such policy.

Policy advocacy, however, is urging a government to set a certain policy for a desired outcome. The analysis of policy is essential because it allows for various groups to then determine what sort of goals or direction they want their policy makers to advocate. There are several different policy models that can be used to properly examine and analyze public policy, each of which is somewhat suggestive of a particular line of thought or of advocacy for policy.

Institutionalism, for example studies policy in terms of its output from a number of important institutions such as the different branches of government judicial, executive…… [Read More].

Steven Kelman's Making Public Policy: A Hopeful View of American Government. This is a brief but accurate summary of the central thesis of Kelman's philosophy of what enables the American system of government to function as well as it does. Perhaps because of the contentious nature of the modern media, discussions of the American governmental system and political process tend to focus on criticisms rather than on praises of its ability to address social ills.

However, it is this stress upon the functionality, rather than upon the disfunctionality of American government that drives the structure, arguments, and philosophy advocated by Kelman's book. In his introduction, Kelman states that he wishes to "evaluate how well the policy-making process works in the United States.

S Department of State: At first, the idea of sexual harassment occurred merely in sexual related claims that were against an employer. Ever since the approval of the department's policy, sexual harassment has now been spreading into every part of employment discrimination as well as the creation of a work environment that is hostile. Grant and Wilson Public Policy. He focused on tariff reform in the Underwood-Simmons Act by arguing that high tariffs created monopolies and hurt consumers, pushed to end certain child labor practices, and above all tried to engender a fairer distribution of public funds for housing, utilities, and public projects Wilson, However, looking back at his pre-World War I policies, it was his adamant work on currency and banking reform that seemed to have the greatest impact on American society.

The Federal eserve's Monetary Policy is the most important function of the Fed and is probably the most used policy in macroeconomics.

Monetary policy refers to the actions undertaken by a central bank, such as the Federal eserve, to influence the availability and cost of money and credit to help promote national economic goals.

The Federal eserve Act of gave the Federal eserve responsibility for setting monetary policy. The Federal eserve controls the three…… [Read More]. It is widely referred to an ineffective policy or legislation.

Despite high hopes and bipartisan support, the policy has not worked out as planned. This paper delves into the problems with No Child Left Behind -- and will present the changes that could make it stronger and more effective. Bush in was launched, according to authors Deborah Meier and George ood, in a bipartisan spirit in order to do something "positive in the wake of the terrorist attacks" of September 11, Meier, et al.

Market Failure and Public Policy. Government intervention can also extend to public goods that cause the private-decision rule to fail in terms of the efficiency rule. According to Julianle Grand , p. Grand distinguishes between the benefits and costs to such third parties; where the former entails a positive effect to the third party and the latter a negative effect.

Markets can then fail when a lower level of activity occurs in the market than is socially efficient, while an overprovision of activity with external costs will also result in greater activity than is efficient. Grand also mentions increasing returns to scale Grand, , p. This could lead to market monopolization…… [Read More]. British Public Policy Over the.

These actions, along with the ones taken to address the various economic issues that are facing the government and the country, will help to sway favorable opinions towards Labor. Where, the party will be seen as one that was able to transform itself in the aftermath of the expenses scandal. This is significant because in the world of politics perceptions are the reality. If rown can change the focus and perceptions towards Labor favorably by addressing these issues, he will have been able to successfully transform his party.

Over the course of time, this will help to make the political and economic system more responsive to the will of the people. The ritish System of Government. Healthcare Public Policy Lessons in.

But due to the ineffective allocation of resources, while money was spent on his care when his blood sugar was 'out of control,' and when he began to develop blindness and other symptoms of uncontrolled diabetes, he did not receive the consistent but relatively low-care necessary to reduce the causes of his inability to manage his condition.

Conclusion Healthcare operates within the market system, and is subject to opportunity costs like any other good or service. However, overall the healthcare system does not operate upon the principles of efficiency, often due to the bureaucracy of the healthcare system and its methods of reimbursement and prioritizing acute over primary care.

What a Texas town can teach us about health care. Global Warming Public Policy the. The demand for alternative energy forms is most likely going to form a very profitable niche on the market in the near future. This is obviously the same thing as when the informational revolution began or when the industrial revolution came about. The companies who will became providers of solutions to energy alternatives and to enable the companies to abide by the governmental restrictions in the field will also be interested stakeholders in getting the governmental restrictions implemented and operational in the industry.

Increased governmental spending and involvement into creating alternative forms of energy. An important pro-in this case is that the significant governmental involvement, especially in terms of promoting and financing research for new forms of alternative energy, can actually have a tremendous impact and produce immediate results. Increased governmental spending in any area will mean potentially higher taxes and a greater burden for the…… [Read More].

Interest Groups Seek Influence Public Policy Interest Groups Seek Influence Making Public Policy Define an interest group, with examples An interest group can be described as an association that is formally organized that is in pursuit of influencing public policy.

The wider description, scholars using it increasingly, older contrasts with it, narrower ones, which are inclusive of private associations only that their formal organization is distinct like Italy's General Confederation of industry and human rights organization Guatemala Mutual Support Group.

Lobbying is the process of influencing public officials to decide upon taking decisions and actions that are to the advantage of the given people in an organized group. Interest groups usually hire lobbyists as employees or hired hands for their services.

The accessibility to…… [Read More]. Personal Statement -- Public Policy. If given the opportunity to amend the policy, what action would you take and why? The national proposal to increase sin taxes on alcoholic beverages is long overdue and should be supported not only by all sectors of the government but the American public most especially. The fact is well-known that alcohol consumption is not only dangerous for the consumer but also has various economic and social harms for the society as well as users' immediate environment.

It means that alcohol can affect not only the drinker but other people in the form of violence or road accidents. Taxing alcohol at higher rates will provide a mechanism that will taper buying due to high prices.

But I believe that taxing alone should not be the only thrust of this policy. Rather, continuous education and awareness campaigns by both the public and private sector will go further to ensure that people…… [Read More]. For Application Assignment One of the most prominent tools or practices that John Bury should utilize to help reinforce environmental legislation from a non-regulatory perspective is to issue tax breaks to citizens who decided to contribute to practices that are environmentally sound.

For instance, those that donate funds to various groups that are set up for the purpose of counteracting environmental effects should be able to write off such donations and get a 'break' on their income taxes as a result. Presenting tax incentives will be an effective means of getting people to adhere to environmental regulations because they will be able to see a direct benefit to doing so in their financial statements at the end of the year.

There are no regulations for this practice, and it will certainly resonate with more financially conscious individuals -- who are typically the people involved…… [Read More]. Ethics and Public Policy Ethical Dilemma This paper discusses the application of the major ethical theories of consequentialism utilitarianism , deontology, and virtue ethics to a specific policy question, namely how to improve the nutrition of the nation's poor and to reduce the rise in food insecurity.

It also discusses the implications of ethical theories such as determinism and moral relativism. First, the theory is discussed in the abstract, followed by an exposition of how the theory relates to real-world practice. The paper concludes with a more general reflection on the implications of ethical theories for public policy-makers.

The specific merits of virtue ethics are stressed vs. The more extreme and polarizing views of deontology and consequentialism. Food insecurity One of the dilemmas facing public policy-makers regarding food insecurity and the need to improve the diet of poor Americans is the balance between individual liberties and the need…… [Read More]. Gender and Public Policy or. Their labor market position then becomes a matter of individual 'choice' In Sweden, the definition of women's entitlements to welfare in family policies has changed dramatically since the early s, away from the provision of benefits to them as mothers and toward benefits that they draw by virtue of their labor market status.

Yet, paradoxically, the outcome of this shift has been the strengthening of policies that recognize women's needs as mothers. In other words, Sweden is very permissive in granting paternal leave and day care to both parents, which benefits women, but men can also benefit from these policies, even though the greatest beneficiary of the policy may be women, as women have…… [Read More].

Individual is a year-old African-American male. Although this individual is from a middle class background and was raised in a suburban area that included a majority white population, his story reveals the ways public policy can be discriminatorily applied.

This individual is defined as at risk based on several factors including race, class, and gender. His race puts the individual at a systematic disadvantage vis-a-vis his white neighbors because of several factors. One is that law enforcement officials in his and surrounding communities are more likely to stop and interrogate him versus his white peers.

As second issue is that the individual was treated differently from his white counterparts in school. A third is that his parents had experienced discrimination and their experiences have had an influence on the individual's worldview and his belief in the possibility for change. Public Policy View Full Essay. The Trust for Public Land. Partisanship and Voting Behavior, American Journal of Political Science 44 1: In The United States Congress: A Century of Change.

Ohio State Gary, J. The Transformation of U. House Elections in the. Hybrid car saves fuel, money. Retrieved December 31, from Web site: Hybrid cars overtake fuel cells in short-term comparison , March Science , Korchinski, W.

An ebola outbreak contained: And other nations can learn from Nigeria. Retrieved October 22, from http: The potential and pitfalls-Country Case Studies. Organizacion para Estudios Tropicales, 2, Land Economics, 74 4.

Welcome to Costa Rica! The use of choice experiments in the analysis of tourist preferences for ecotourism development in Costa Rica. Journal of Environmental Management, 65 2 , References Evans, Anthony J. Uncertainty, Calculation and Error. The Financial Crisis and the Regulation of Finance. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. Mainelli, Michael and Manson, Bernard Correction Statistics [Online located at http: Montaldo, Charles U.

How Crowded are They? Works Cited Chipman, Kim. March 14, http: PPA Policy Analysis. California State University Long Beach. Retrieved July 13, from http: A Guide to Managing Public Policy. How the Bubble Destroyed the Middle Class. Health spending growth at a historic low in Health Affairs, 29 1 , The doctor takes charge: Healthcare prospects brighten under new senate leader.

Healthcare Financial Management, 57 2 , References Gethard, Gregg The Cap and Tax Fiction. Waxman-Markey cap-and-trade bill stuffed full of unpleasant surprises. Works Cited Biography of Franklin Roosevelt.

Retrieved June 8, at http: Obama's big healthcare test. Lawmakers push national Amber alert system. Senate approves national child abduction alert legislation. Senate Democrats reach compromise on U. Retrieved December 10, from http:

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Public Policy essays Public Policy impacts almost every aspect of our lives, be it economic, social or cultural. Our economic well-being is, to a large extent, determined by the fiscal and monetary policies of government, while socially we are directly or indirectly affected by public policy.

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- American Public Policy in the Fifties: The Development of Dilemmas During the s, Eisenhower simultaneously developed public policy through control of military commitments abroad; for the individual, the ironic combination of consumer freedom, repressive social structures, and civil rights expansion; a protectionist stance on the .

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Oct 24,  · As public policy problem affect public policy implementation, it is necessary to find the proper solutions to the problem of illegal immigration. The public response to existing problems and the solutions to these problems should be based on positive public experience.5/5(2). Feb 18,  · So what is public policy? Public policy is the action taken by the government to make changes for the better. As the paper goes on one will learn about this even further throughout it. When dealing with public policy and how it is created one must know how the idea is even brought up and put into motion.

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The topic of public policy can lead to a wide range of essays as your students discuss not only the policy process but also specific policies that are in place. Let's explore the kind of topics you can give your students in this context. Sep 09,  · Social issues and public policy topics were, traditionally, managed by states through a central regulatory agenda consisting of bureaucracies and .